Five Mass Extinctions. At five other times in the past, rates of extinction have soared. These are called mass extinctions, when huge numbers of species disappear in a relatively short period of time. Paleontologists know about these extinctions from remains of organisms with durable skeletons that fossilized. 1.
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Permian mass extinction

Permian mass extinction

Modern plant extinction rates that exceed historical rates by hundreds of times over a brief period will spell disaster for our planet’s future. Earth is seeing an unprecedented loss of species, which some ecologists are calling a sixth mas...These emissions may have caused atmospheric pCO 2 to rise to >8000 ppm during the end-Permian mass extinction (Davydov et al., 2021). The release of greenhouse gases, augmented by the positive climate feedback of melting permafrost, is the probable cause of the large negative δ 13 C excursion during the PTTI (Joachimski et al., 2019).The cause of the end-Permian mass extinction is conjectural but favors extremely rapid injection of a large volume of isotopically light carbon in the form of methane/CO 2 into the ocean/atmosphere system, resulting in hypercapnia, low ocean pH, a calcification crisis, and atmosphere/seawater temperature rise. Although the source, isotopic ...Pattern of marine mass extinction near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China. Science, 289: 432–436. Article Google Scholar Joachimski M M, Lai X, Shen S, Jiang H, Luo G, Chen B, Chen J, Sun Y. 2012. Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Geology, 40: 195–198Mar 1, 2022 · The end of the Permian was characterized by the greatest mass extinction event in Earth's history. Two-hundred fifty-two million years ago, a series of volcanic eruptions in Siberia led to a ... In the late Permian, before the end-Permian mass extinction, the nutrient utilization in the Paleo-Tethys Ocean was relatively high and stable in both shallow- and deep-water settings. During the mass extinction event and Early Triassic, with the exception of extremely shallow-water platform environments, the primary productivity in relatively deep-water …The mass extinction at the end of the Permian was the most profound in the history of life. Fundamental to understanding its cause is determining the tempo and duration of the extinction. Uranium/lead zircon data from Late Permian and Early Triassic rocks from south China place the Permian-Triassic boundary at 251.4 ± 0.3 million years …of Mass Extinctions Disaster struck 250 million years ago, when the worst decimation in the earth's history occurred. Called the end-Permian mass extinction, it marks a fundamental change in the development of life by Douglas H. Erwin PATRICIA J. WYNNE 1 DROP IN SEA LEVEL, which had begun gradually about 260 million years ago, be-A Middle Permian mass extinction, first discovered in 1994, has become known as the "end-Guadalupian event" in the literature. However, recent studies of foraminifera- and brachiopod-range truncations in conodont-dated sections on the South China Block have shown that the losses occur below this level, in the middle of the Capitanian Stage.The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) at ∼252 Ma was the most severe extinction in the Phanerozoic. Marine ecosystems devastated by the EPME had a highly prolonged recovery, and did not substantially recover until after the Smithian-Spathian substage boundary (SSB) of the Lower Triassic (5 to 9 Ma after the EPME).The end-Permian mass extinction reflects the most severe life crisis during the Phanerozoic and was associated with major global environmental changes. However, the consistency of the time and pattern of the terrestrial and marine extinctions remains controversial. In this paper, we presented detailed analyses of the high-resolution ...Feb 24, 2023 · The research, published in the journal Current Biology, examined fossils from south China, which was a shallow sea during the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. The team recreated the ancient ... interest in anoxia as a trigger for end-Permian mass extinction [34,35]. Biomarker lipids diagnostic of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria also occur in latest Permian and basal Triassic marine strata, providing independent evidence that many ocean basins were prone to anoxia within the photic zone [36]. Moreover,This included the disappearance of over 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species. The Permian-Triassic extinction event is the only mass extinction event that took a toll on the insect population, wiping them out in large numbers. Since so many species perished, the Permian-Triassic extinction event is also called, "The Great Dying".The Permian extinction wiped out 70 percent of known land species. ... Meat-eaters suddenly appearing only to go extinct is a sign of the drawn-out mass extinction. "The end-Permian extinction ...1.. IntroductionMuch effort has been focused in recent years on events surrounding the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. While most scientific interest has concentrated on the cause of the mass extinction and the role oceanic and climatic perturbations may have played in the event, far less energy has been directed towards the period following the mass extinction.About 252 million years ago, a fiery apocalypse known as the end-Permian extinction, or "Great Dying," killed more than 80% of sea life and 70% of terrestrial species. Basalt lava oozed and ...The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) is the biggest of its kind in Earth's Phanerozoic history, marked by the loss of over 90% of marine species and > 70% of terrestrial species (Sepkoski, 1981, Erwin, 1994, Jin et al., 2000, Xiong and Wang, 2011, Shen et al., 2011, Stanley, 2016). This was an epic event in the history of life.1.. IntroductionMultiple observations reflect disturbance of the global carbon cycle coincident with end-Permian mass extinction. Primary evidence for carbon cycle perturbation comes from the large negative excursion in δ 13 C of carbonates and organic matter beginning near the extinction horizon [1], [2], [3], [4].Substantial changes in the …The Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME; ∼252 mya), as the greatest known extinction, permanently altered marine ecosystems and paved the way for the transition from Paleozoic to Mesozoic evolutionary faunas. Thus, the PTME offers a window into the relationship between taxon richness and ecological dynamics of ecosystems during a severe ...Learn about the 5 mass extinctions, and see a list of some extinct species. Explore how we can prevent extinctions, or possibly reverse them. ... End Permian (252 million years ago): Earth's largest extinction event, decimating most marine species such as all trilobites, plus insects and other terrestrial animals. Most scientific evidence ...Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have suggested a variety of patterns from a single catastrophic event to multiple phases. But most of these analyses have been based on fossil distributions from single localities. Although single sections may simplify the interpretation of species diversity, they are susceptible to bias from ...Transient ocean oxygenation at end-Permian mass extinction onset shown by thallium isotopes. Nature Geoscience , 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41561-021-00802-4 Cite This Page :The End-Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) (also known as Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction, PTME) is one of the most studied geobiological events of the past. It is the most severe mass extinction of all life—"the mother of all extinctions"—and promoted the evolution of modern ecosystems (e.g., Raup and Sepkoski 1982; Erwin 1993, 2006).The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) was the most severe extinction event of the Phanerozoic. To investigate oceanic redox conditions around the EPME, we conducted a series of geochemical analyses, including iron speciation, trace element geochemistry, total organic carbon (TOC), and nitrogen isotopes of kerogen (δ 15 N kero ), around the ...1. Introduction. The end-Permian mass extinction, which occurred at about 252 Ma, was the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic and severely affected terrestrial and marine ecosystems (Erwin, 1993; Benton, 2016; Dal Corso et al., 2022).The cause of the end-Permian mass extinction is not fully understood, but it was most likely due to a series of global surface environmental changes (i.e ...The end-Permian mass extinction [EPME, ~252 million years (Ma)] is characterized by the occurrence of extreme global warming of 7° to >10°C (1-6) and was accompanied by a marked perturbation of the global carbon cycle, as indicated by a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) (7, 8) as well as proxy evidence for elevated atmo-To understand this extinction, I wanted first to get a sense of its scale. That's difficult— sediments containing . fossils from the end of the Permian are rare and often inaccessible. One site that preserves the extinction's victims lies about a half day's drive inland from Cape Town, South Africa, in a scrubland known as the Karoo. Permian Extinction - Dushanthi Jayawardena · Tags · Get Connected · Newsletter ...Permian-Triassic boundary extinction biotic recovery stable carbon isotopes anoxia euxinia Euxinia was widespread during and after the end-Permian mass extinction and is commonly cited as an explanation for delayed biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. This anoxic, sulfidic episode has beenThe mass extinction at the end of the Permian Period 252 million years ago — one of the great turnovers of life on Earth — appears to have played out differently and at different times on land and in the sea, according to newly redated fossils beds from South Africa and Australia. New ages for fossilized vertebrates that lived just after ...The mother of all mass extinctions, the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event was a true global catastrophe, wiping out an unbelievable 95 percent of ocean-dwelling animals and 70 percent of terrestrial animals. So extreme was the devastation that it took life 10 million years to recover, to judge by the early Triassic fossil record.The post-extinction foraminifer assemblage is characterized by the presence of both disaster taxa and Lazarus taxa. Foraminifer distribution near the P-Tr boundary also reveals that the irregular contact surface at the uppermost Permian may be created by a massive submarine dissolution event, which may be coeval with the end-Permian mass ...Called the end-Permian mass extinction or the Great Dying, this most severe of extinction events wiped out about 90 percent of the planet's marine species and 75 percent of terrestrial species.To understand this extinction, I wanted first to get a sense of its scale. That's difficult— sediments containing . fossils from the end of the Permian are rare and often inaccessible. One site that preserves the extinction's victims lies about a half day's drive inland from Cape Town, South Africa, in a scrubland known as the Karoo.The Permian ended with at least one mass extinction, an event sometimes known as "the Great Dying", caused by large floods of lava (the Siberian Traps in Russia and the Emeishan Traps in China). This extinction was the largest in Earth's history and led to the loss of 95% of all species of life.Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Event. The Permian-Triassic extinction event is the largest and most severe extinction event in the fossil record. The extinction event, also called the Great Dying, is supposed to have happened around 252 million years ago.The End-Permian Mass Extinction (EPME) (also known as Permian–Triassic Mass Extinction, PTME) is one of the most studied geobiological events of the past. It is the most severe mass extinction of all life—“the mother of all extinctions”—and promoted the evolution of modern ecosystems (e.g., Raup and …20 окт. 2020 г. ... The end-Permian mass extinction, also known as the Permian-Triassic extinction event and the Great Dying, is the largest mass extinction ...Called the end-Permian mass extinction or the Great Dying, this most severe of extinction events wiped out about 90 percent of the planet's marine species and 75 percent of terrestrial species.The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) occurred ∼251.94 million years ago (Burgess et al., 2014).It was the most severe extinction event of the Phanerozoic, devastating both marine and terrestrial ecosystems, with the loss of ∼81% and ∼89% marine and terrestrial species, respectively (Fan et al., 2020; Viglietti et al., 2021).The end-Permian mass extinction is considered to be the most devastating biotic event in the history of life on Earth - it caused dramatic losses in global biodiversity, both in water and on ...Probably the best-known mass extinction event took out all the dinosaurs on Earth. This was the fifth mass extinction event, called the Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction, or K-T Extinction for short. Although the Permian Mass Extinction, also known as the "Great Dying," was much larger in the number of species that went extinct, the K-T ...Jun 21, 2021 · Researchers found a direct link between global dispersion of nickel-rich aerosols, ocean chemistry changes and the end-Permian mass extinction event that took place 251 million years ago. The end-Permian mass extinction is the greatest biotic crisis in Earth history causing the extinction of a large number of marine and terrestrial animals globally. However, how land plants responded to the catastrophe remains controversial. The successive plant-bearing beds in China provide a unique window into the great vegetation change ...The worst came a little over 250 million years ago — before dinosaurs walked the earth — in an episode called the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction, or the Great Dying, when 90% of life in the ...Oxygen deprivation and hydrogen sulfide toxicity are considered potent kill mechanisms during the mass extinction just before the Permian–Triassic boundary (~251.9 million years ago). However ...The aforementioned End Permian mass extinction and the End Triassic one of 201 million years ago, he says, involved rapid climate warming and ocean acidification— both of which threaten species ...A team of scientists has found new evidence that the Great Permian Extinction, which occurred approximately 250 million years ago, was caused by massive volcanic eruptions that led to significant environmental changes. ... which would explain the intense global warming recorded in the oceans and on land at the time of the mass extinctions. The ...During the end-Permian mass extinction, the marine primary productivity recorded by Cd isotopes in the relatively deep-water sections was considerably reduced, which may have caused the destruction of relatively deep-water marine ecosystems. We suggest that upward expansion of sulfidic and anoxic deep water, possibly due to the volcanic ...19 нояб. 2016 г. ... The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian ...The mass extinction just prior to the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) was the most severe biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic, with the loss of more than 90% marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate families (Erwin, 1994, Benton & Twitchett, 2003, Bambach et al., 2004). The cause of the extinction is still highly debated.Oxygen deprivation and hydrogen sulfide toxicity are considered potent kill mechanisms during the mass extinction just before the Permian-Triassic boundary (~251.9 million years ago). However ...The end-Permian mass extinction was the greatest biological calamity in the history of the planet. It is estimated that around fifty percent of marine families and perhaps ninety percent of marine species perished in the debacle—a loss of diversity unequaled in any other extinction event (Jin et al., 2000; Raup, 1979).On land, more than sixty percent of vertebrate families seem to have ...Lacustrine ecosystems needed 10 million years to recover after end-permian mass extinction. Apr 3, 2020. Geochemical study confirms cause of end-Permian mass extinction event. Jun 21, 2021.The end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 251.9 Ma) was Earth’s largest biotic crisis as measured by taxon last occurrences (13–15).Large outpourings from Siberian Trap volcanism are the likely trigger of calamitous climatic changes, including a runaway greenhouse effect and ocean acidification, which had profound consequences for life on land and in the oceans (16–18).A relative timing framework. Recent high-resolution U/Pb geochronology provides a detailed chronology of Siberian Traps magmatism and the end-Permian mass extinction 4, 8, and the ability to ...The end-Permian extinction occurred 252.2 million years ago, decimating 90 percent of marine and terrestrial species, from snails and small crustaceans to early forms of lizards and amphibians. “The Great Dying,” as it’s now known, was the most severe mass extinction in Earth’s history, and is probably the closest life has come to being ...An artist's rendering of the mass extinction of life that occurred toward the end of the Permian Period, about 250 million years ago. Lynette Cook/Science Source There was a time when life on ...According to textbooks, reptiles first ventured into the open sea after the end-Permian mass extinction, which devastated marine ecosystems and paved the way for the dawn of the Age of Dinosaurs ...A relative timing framework. Recent high-resolution U/Pb geochronology provides a detailed chronology of Siberian Traps magmatism and the end-Permian mass extinction 4, 8, and the ability to ...The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) occurred ∼251.94 million years ago (Burgess et al., 2014).It was the most severe extinction event of the Phanerozoic, devastating both marine and terrestrial ecosystems, with the loss of ∼81% and ∼89% marine and terrestrial species, respectively (Fan et al., 2020; Viglietti et al., 2021).“The end-Permian mass extinction may be less well known than the end-Cretaceous, but it was by far the biggest mass extinction of all time. Perhaps as few as 10 percent of species survived the end of the Permian, whereas 50 percent survived the end of the Cretaceous. Fifty percent extinction was associated with devastating environmental upheaval.28 апр. 2023 г. ... ... mass extinction in Earth's history marked the end of the Permian Period. Learn about what events during the Permian Period. Pangaea. During ...The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe loss of marine and terrestrial biota in the last 542 My. Understanding its cause and the controls on extinction/recovery dynamics depends on an accurate and precise age model. U-Pb zircon dates for five volcanic ash beds from the Global Stratotype Section and Point for the Permian-Triassic ...Some 252 million years ago, the Earth suffered the largest, single most destructive ecological event in its history: the Permian-Triassic extinction, also known as the Great Dying. This mass...Recent studies have brought the Great Dying at the end of the Permian Period into focus. Up to 95% of shell-bearing marine species and 80% of land animals perished (1, 2).The temporal association of the extinction with the Siberia flood basalts at approximately 250 Ma is well known (1-7), but a causal mechanism connecting the flood basalts to global extinction is not evident.22 апр. 2021 г. ... Using the earlier comparison, if the history of life on Earth were compressed into a single year and the end-Permian extinction killed 95% of ...Roughly 250 million years have passed since Earth experienced an extinction so profound, it's become colloquially known as the Great Dying. One by one, species of plant and animal – both aquatic and terrestrial – winked out of existence as entire ecosystems struggled to thrive. Also known as the Permian-Triassic extinction event or end ...The Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME), sometimes known as the end-Ordovician mass extinction or the Ordovician-Silurian extinction, is the first of the "big five" major mass extinction events in Earth's history, occurring roughly 443 Mya. It is often considered to be the second-largest known extinction event, in terms of the percentage of genera that became extinct.Permian-Triassic Extinction (end of Permian extinction) is the most severe mass extinction event which happened 252 million years ago (Burgess et al., 2014) and wiped out more than 81% of the ...The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) caused significant changes in the marine and terrestrial realms because of global environmental deterioration caused by intensive volcanic activities. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments are powerful proxies indicating the frequency and intensity of wildfires during the Permian-Triassic (P-T) transition, providing critical information ...A relative timing framework. Recent high-resolution U/Pb geochronology provides a detailed chronology of Siberian Traps magmatism and the end-Permian mass extinction 4, 8, and the ability to ...The end-Permian is the largest known mass extinction of insects; according to some sources, it may well be the only mass extinction to significantly affect insect diversity. Eight or nine insect orders became extinct and ten more were greatly reduced in diversity.The Permian period ended about 250 million years ago with the largest recorded mass extinction in Earth's history, when a series of massive volcanic eruptions is believed to have triggered ...The end-Permian mass extinction, the largest extinction of the Phanerozoic, led to a severe reduction in both taxonomic richness and ecological complexity of marine communities, eventually culminating …The end-Permian mass extinction was the most extreme of any in Earth history. It's sometimes dubbed "The Great Dying," with 62% of marine genera going extinct, as well as severe impacts among terrestrial biota. Perhaps only 17% of species on Earth survived it. It's the sharp cliff at the end of the "Paleozoic Plateau." It's the ...The most severe extinction since the advent of animal life on Earth occurred at the end of the Permian Period, 251 million years ago (Ma) (1-3), with global loss of marine species estimated near 90% (4, 5).Organisms with heavy calcification and limited elaboration of circulatory and respiratory systems were most severely affected, whereas those with more active control of circulation ...The end-Permian is the largest known mass extinction of insects; according to some sources, it may well be the only mass extinction to significantly affect insect diversity. …Dec 7, 2018 · In this study, we tested whether rapid greenhouse warming and the accompanying loss of ocean O 2 —the two best-supported aspects of end-Permian environmental change—can together account for the magnitude and biogeographic selectivity of end-Permian mass extinction in the oceans. Specifically, we simulated global warming across the Permian ... The Permian-Triassic mass extinction, around 252 million years ago and also known as the "Great Dying," is the worst ever to affect Earth. It wiped out approximately 90 percent of all species on ...The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe biotic crisis in Earth's history. In its direct aftermath, microbial communities were abundant on shallow-marine shelves around the Tethys. They colonized the space left vacant after the dramatic decline of skeletal metazoans. The presence of sponges and sponge microbial bioherms has largely gone unnoticed due to the sponges' size and the ...The ongoing species extinction rates, which reached the 1% level on land and the 0% level in seas from 1800-1900 to 2010 1, 2, 3, are far from the major mass extinction magnitude (> 60%) 4 ...Some 252 million years ago, the Earth suffered the largest, single most destructive ecological event in its history: the Permian-Triassic extinction, also known as the Great Dying. This mass... 1.. IntroductionMuch effort has been focused in recent years on events surrounding the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. While most scientific interest has concentrated on the cause of the mass extinction and the role oceanic and climatic perturbations may have played in the event, far less energy has been directed towards the period following the mass extinction.Mar 1, 2022 · The end-Permian mass extinction (EPME) was known as the most severe biocrisis of the past 600 Ma. In order to explore the redox state of deep water environments, and the causal relationship between anoxia/euxinia and the EPME, this study selected the Penglaitan section in Guangxi, China, and measured the iron speciation and concentrations of trace elements and major elements. five Permian clades (Cladida, Flexibilia, Disparida, Camerata, and Articulata), only the articulates survived (Twitchett & Oji 2005). The extinction was severe (91% genus loss) for all calcified orders of foraminifera (Lagenida, Miliolida, and Fusulinida), but particularly so for the large and www.annualreviews.org • End-Permian Mass ...A mass extinction is usually defined as a loss of about three quarters of all species in existence across the entire Earth over a "short" geological period of time. Given the vast amount of time ...Earth-surface change associated with the largest mass extinction in Earth history, the end-Permian extinction, which killed approximately 90% of all marine ...The Deccan Traps in India likely contributed to the demise of the dinosaurs, for example, and the Siberian Traps are believed to have triggered the end-Permian extinction, in which more than 90% ...The Permian-Triassic extinction event, also known as the P-Tr extinction, the P-T extinction, the End-Permian Extinction, and colloquially as the Great Dying, formed the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, approximately 252 million years ago. It is the Earth's most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of ...30 июл. 1996 г. ... But no such iridium anomalies associated with the Permian extinction have been found, and there is wide agreement that the Permian "great dying, ...The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (STLIP) is regarded as the ultimate trigger for the latest Permian mass extinction (LPME, ca. 252 Ma) and associated global-scale environmental perturbations.It was proposed that iterative phases of climate change in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction could be responsible for the observed fluctuations in global biodiversity and carbon isotope ...Abstract. The end-Permian mass extinction horizon is marked by an abrupt shift in style of carbonate sedimentation and a negative excursion in the carbon isotope ( δ13 C) composition of carbonate minerals. Several extinction scenarios consistent with these observations have been put forward. Secular variation in the calcium isotope ( δ44/40 ...The Permian Period ended with the greatest mass extinction event in Earth’s history. In a blink of Geologic Time — in as little as 100,000 years — the majority of living species on the ...A classic example was the switch from brachiopods to bivalves as major seabed organisms following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME), ~252 million years ago. This was attributed to ...The impact of the end-Permian mass extinction on terrestrial vertebrates has been assessed in a large number of papers over the last decade 10,24,25,39,40,41,42. These studies have highlighted ...Researchers found a direct link between global dispersion of nickel-rich aerosols, ocean chemistry changes and the end-Permian mass extinction event that took place 251 million years ago.Life was devastated by the end-Permian mass extinction 252 million years ago, and recovery of life on Earth took millions of years for biodiversity to return to pre-extinction levels.Transient ocean oxygenation at end-Permian mass extinction onset shown by thallium isotopes. Nature Geoscience , 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41561-021-00802-4 Cite This Page :The end-Permian extinction has been regarded as the most severe of all mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic 1,2,3.Exterrestrial impact, the eruption of Siberian basalts, oceanic anoxia, hydrogen ...The Permian-Triassic Boundary event at 252.2 Ma marks the largest extinction of marine fauna in the Phanerozoic and there is a wide consensus that the extinction coincided with an intense oceanic anoxic event. The stratotype of the Changhsingian Stage, precisely constrained by the PTB Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) and the GSSP for the Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian Boundary, both ...The end of the Permian was characterized by the greatest mass extinction event in Earth's history. 252 million years ago, a series of volcanic eruptions in Siberia led to a massive release of ...The authors analysed the patterns of previously reported plant fossils from 259.1 million to around 237 million years ago, which spans the end-Permian mass extinction and the Early and Middle ...The Permian-Triassic mass extinction was therefore a cascading collapse of vital global cycles sustaining the environment driven by an immense multi-millennial carbon injection to the atmosphere. The extreme changes and multiple stressors - high temperatures, acidification, oxygen loss, sulphide poisoning - combined to wipe out a large ...The mass extinction event that occurred at the close of the Permian Period (~ 252 million years ago) represents the most severe biodiversity loss in the ocean of the Phanerozoic.The links between the global carbon cycle, climate change and mass extinction are complex and involve a whole range of often inter-related geochemical, biological, ecologic and climatic factors.The Permian mass extinction occurred about 248 million years ago and was the greatest mass extinction ever recorded in earth history; even larger than the previously …252 Million Years Ago: Permian-Triassic Extinction. ... “Many of the past mass extinction events are mysterious in some ways because we really don’t know the cause,” says Michael Novacek, the Museum’s provost of science and a curator in the Division of Paleontology.
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